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Attempts to derive normative values for RV measures have additionally been limited by a ratiometric rather than allometric approach to scaling, We hypothesized that RV mass, RV end-diastolic volume (RVEDV), RV end-systolic volume (RVESV), RV stroke volume (RVSV), and RV ejection fraction (RVEF) measured by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) would differ by age, sex, and race/ethnicity in an older, multiethnic adult population without clinical cardiovascular disease.
We also derived sex-specific reference equations for RV mass, RV volumes, and RVEF in a healthy, nonobese, never-smoking subset and derived cutoffs to define abnormal RV morphology.
Race/ethnicity was self-reported during the baseline MESA examination according to 2000 US Census criteria as race (white, black, Chinese American) and ethnicity (Hispanic or non-Hispanic).
Participants self-identifying as Hispanic were categorized as Hispanic.
Papillary muscles and trabeculae were included in the RV volumes and excluded from RV mass, as is commonly done for LV mass.
These single-center studies have not used epidemiological sampling strategies, instead focusing mostly on young adults of homogeneous race and ethnicity.
Image analysis was done on Windows workstations with QMASS software (version 4.2; Medis, the Netherlands). Image contrast was set to 55; image brightness was set to 55; and window width and level were set with the auto function in QMASS to minimum and maximum pixel values of 0 and 238, respectively.
The endocardial and epicardial borders of the RV were traced manually on the short-axis cine images at the end-systolic and end-diastolic phases.
The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) is a multicenter prospective cohort study designed to investigate the prevalence, correlates, and progression of subclinical cardiovascular disease in whites, blacks, Hispanics, and Chinese Americans without clinical cardiovascular disease at baseline.
In 2000 to 2002, MESA recruited 6814 men and women 45 to 84 years of age from 6 US communities: Forsyth County, North Carolina; Northern Manhattan and the Bronx, NY; Baltimore City and Baltimore County, Maryland; St. Exclusion criteria included clinical cardiovascular disease (physician-diagnosed heart attack, stroke, transient ischemic attack, heart failure, angina, current atrial fibrillation, any cardiovascular procedure), weight 136 kg (300 lbs), pregnancy, or impediment to long-term participation.
Full visualization of the correct placement of RV contours relied on evaluation of cine images to determine the demarcation between the right atrium and the RV.